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 Species name Base pairs Gene Number Notes
φX174 5,386 11 virus of E. coli. The first DNA genome sequenced by Sanger group  of MRC Centre, Cambridge, UK
Human mitochondrion 16,569 37 The first non-viral genome sequenced by Sanger group of MRC Centre, Cambridge, UK
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) 172,282 80 causes mononucleosis
Nanoarchaeum equitans 490,885 552 This parasitic member of the Archaea has the smallest genome of a true organism yet found.
nucleomorph of Guillardia theta 551,264 511 all that remains of the nuclear genome of a red alga (eukaryote) engulfed long ago by another eukaryote
Mycoplasma genitalium 580,073 485 three of the smallest true organisms
Ureaplasma urealyticum 751,719 652
Mycoplasma pneumoniae 816,394 680
Chlamydia trachomatis 1,042,519 936 most common sexually-transmitted disease (STD) bacterium in the U.S.
Rickettsia prowazekii 1,111,523 834 bacterium that causes epidemic typhus
Treponema pallidum 1,138,011 1,039 bacterium that causes syphilis
Mimivirus 1,181,404 1,262 A virus (of an amoeba) with a genome larger than the six cellular organisms above
Rickettsia conorii 1,268,755 1,374 causes Mediterranean spotted fever
Pelagibacter ubique 1,308,759 1,354 smallest genome yet found in a free-living organism (marine α-proteobacterium)
Borrelia burgdorferi 1.44 x 106 1,738 bacterium that causes Lyme disease [Note]
Aquifex aeolicus 1,551,335 1,749 bacterium isolated from a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park
Campylobacter jejuni 1,641,481 1,708 frequent cause of food poisoning
Helicobacter pylori 1,667,867 1,589 chief cause of stomach ulcers (not stress and diet)
Thermoplasma acidophilum 1,564,905 1,509 These unicellular microbes look like typical bacteria but their genes

are so different from those of either bacteria or eukaryotes that they are

classified in a third kingdom: Archaea.
Methanococcus jannaschii 1,664,970 1,783
Aeropyrum pernix 1,669,695 1,885
Pyrococcus horikoshii 1,738,505 1,994
1,751,377 2,008
Haemophilus influenzae 1,830,138 1,738 bacterium that causes middle ear infections
Thermotoga maritima 1,860,725 1,879 marine bacterium
Streptococcus pneumoniae 2,160,837 2,236 the pneumococcus
Archaeoglobus fulgidus 2,178,400 2,437 another member of the Archaea
Neisseria meningitidis 2,184,406 2,185 Group A; causes occasional epidemics of meningitis in less developed countries.
Neisseria meningitidis 2,272,351 2,221 Group B; the most frequent cause of meningitis in the U.S.
Encephalitozoon cuniculi 2,507,519 1,997 (plus 69 RNA genes); a parasitic eukaryote.
Propionibacterium acnes 2,560,265 2,333 causes acne
Listeria monocytogenes 2,944,528 2,926 2,853 of these encode proteins; the rest RNAs
Deinococcus radiodurans 3,284,156 3,187 on 2 chromosomes and 2 plasmids; bacterium noted for its resistance to radiation damage
Synechocystis 3,573,470 4,003 a marine cyanobacterium ("blue-green alga")
Vibrio cholerae 4,033,460 3,890 in 2 chromosomes; causes cholera
Mycobacterium tuberculosis 4,411,532 3,959 causes tuberculosis
Mycobacterium leprae 3,268,203 1,604 causes leprosy
Bacillus subtilis 4,214,814 4,779 another bacterium
E. coli K-12 4,639,221 4,377 4,290 of these genes encode proteins; the rest RNAs
E. coli O157:H7 5.44 x 106 5,416 strain that is pathogenic for humans; has 1,346 genes not found in E. coli K-12
Agrobacterium tumefaciens 4,674,062 5,419 Useful vector for making transgenic plants; shares many genes with Sinorhizobium meliloti
Salmonella enterica var Typhi 4,809,037 4,395 + 2 plasmids with 372 active genes; causes typhoid fever
Salmonella enterica var Typhimurium 4,857,432 4,450 + 1 plasmid with 102 active genes
Yersinia pestis 4,826,100 4,052 on 1 chromosome + 3 plasmids; causes plague
Schizosaccharomyces pombe 12,462,637 4,929 Fission yeast. A eukaryote with fewer genes than the four bacteria below.
Ralstonia solanacearum 5,810,922 5,129 soil bacterium pathogenic for many plants; 1681 of its genes on a huge plasmid
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 6.3 x 106 5,570 Increasingly common cause of opportunistic infections in humans.
Streptomyces coelicolor 6,667,507 7,842 An actinomycete whose relatives provide us with many antibiotics
Sinorhizobium meliloti 6,691,694 6,204 The rhizobial symbiont of alfalfa. Genome consists of one chromosome and 2 large plasmids.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae 12,495,682 5,770 Budding yeast. A eukaryote. 5538 by M. Kellis in 2003.
Cyanidioschyzon merolae 16,520,305 5,331 A unicellular red alga.
Plasmodium falciparum 22,853,764 5,268 Plus 53 RNA genes. Causes the most dangerous form of malaria.
Thalassiosira pseudonana 34.5 x 106 11,242 A diatom. Plus 144 chloroplast and 40 mitochondrial genes encoding proteins
Neurospora crassa 38,639,769 10,082 Plus 498 RNA genes.
Naegleria gruberi 41 x 106 15,727 This free-living unicellular organism lives as both an amoeboid and a flagellated form.

4,133 of its genes are also found in other eukaryotes suggesting that they were present in the
common ancestor of all eukaryotes. The great variety of functions encoded by these genes
also suggests that the common ancestor of all eukaryotes was itself as complex as many of the

present-day unicellular members.
Caenorhabditis elegans 100,258,171 19,427 The first multicellular eukaryote to be sequenced.
Arabidopsis thaliana 115,409,949 ~28,000 a flowering plant (angiosperm) See note.
Drosophila melanogaster 122,653,977 13,379 the "fruit fly"
Anopheles gambiae 278,244,063 13,683 Mosquito vector of malaria.
Tetraodon nigroviridis (a pufferfish) 3.42 x 108 27,918 Although Tetraodon seems to have more protein-encoding genes than we do, it has much less "junk" DNA so its total genome is about a tenth the size of ours.
Rice 3.9 x 108 28,236  
Sea urchin 8.14 x 108 ~23,300  
Zebrafish 1.2 x 109 15,761  
Dogs 2.4 x 109 19,300  
Giant panda genome 2.45 x 109   Published in 2010 by NGS methods.
Homo sapiens 3.3 x 109 ~20,000 [Link to more details.]
Mouse 3.4 x 109 ~23,000  
Amphibians 109–1011 ?  
Psilotum nudum 2.5 x 1011 ? Note


External links

Plant C-value database

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